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This is the period under which the Roman States and its abroad provinces were being governed by Emperors. The period lasted from 27 BC with Augustus as the first Emperor until 476 AD. It had two divisions the western and the eastern Empires.
Before it became powerful, Rome was living in fear of the then powerful neighboring Carthage State who were powerful and great traders in the Mediterranean Region. Rome sought to enlarge and control this trading region. This caused the Rome to enter into war with the Carthaginians. Eventually Rome defeated Carthaginians capturing the city of Carthage which was located in North Africa destroying it completely to symbolize the end of Carthaginians powerful era. The Romans desire was not only to capture and conquering the nearby land only but they had also realized that the far away land had riches and wealthy that could benefit the Empire and promote its wealth. With this their desire and drive to conquer Western Europe too was raised and by 150 AD, Rome was controlling the greatest Empire at that time (Wright, 2006). They established the Roman cultural ways in the region they had conquered.
When they defeated the Carthaginians, Romans became more powerful in the Mediterranean region and they had all form of breakthrough that they needed in the expansion of their power in the region. The Empire became powerful due to its superior military and secure communication channels, enjoyed technological advancements at that time and a strong senate system. The need to supply their army with enough foodstuffs, the administration’s encouragement to the growth of towns and cities and peace that was enjoyed across the empire contributed greatly to its e economic growth and development. The growing urbanization led to more demand for foodstuffs in the town and the development of the manufacturing industry which further stabilized the empire’s economy (Mokyr, 2005). The cities and towns had efficient drainage structure and clean water. The Empires influence and trade operations extended to reach Indians, Russians, and Chinese.
The enormous achievements by the Roman Kingdom also contributed to its decline. The expanded size, power struggles and attacks by migrating tribes who wanted to acquire land were some of the factors that led to the Empire’s downfall. The continuous warfare called for more and heavy military expenditure and the overstretched military base also contributed to the decline of the empire. Other factors includes; political corruption and Praetorian security, rivalry between the senate and the Emperor and the deterioration of its economy and high rate of inflation.